Managers must perform four distinct roles to do their work well; these roles include being a producer, an administrator, an entrepreneur, and an integrator. If a manager performs one or more of these roles poorly, he may be appropriately labeled a mismanager. In practice, the complete, "textbook" manager, who can perform all four roles well, is extremely rare. More typically, a manager may perform one or two roles well, one reasonably well, and one poorly—or a similar mixture of management styles. This article describes management styles in which one role predominates and those in which the roles are unevenly balanced. The author suggests that an organization needs leaders with complementary styles of management to function smoothly and effectively.
- © 1977 The Regents of the University of California