Managers have long examined their actions according to the skills and concepts taught in the classroom. Many managers have justified or criticized decisions and actions in light of classroom standards, and some observers have pointed out the differences between managing in the "real world" and studying approaches and theories in the classroom. Yet few management educators have sought to adapt their traditional approaches to the experience of working managers. The author advocates an openended approach to learning, which would continually change and grow in response to experience, rather than a close-ended scheme of following prescribed methods without question or initiative.
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