This concluding article attempts to identify central points of disagreement among the four preceding articles and to discuss their implications. Although all of the authors argue that collaboration is not appropriate for all conflict situations, they differ distinctly in their assertions regarding the proportion of times when it is beneficial. These differences are traced in large part to three sets of conflicting assumptions about: the criteria for evaluating conflict outcomes; sources of conflict; and requirements for creative decision making. These are identified as key research issues in the field of conflict management.
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