This article examines the management of productivity among high-performing retailers in Europe, Japan, and the U.S. While the majority of the foreign firms interviewed for this study followed a formal productivity planning process, successful U.S. retailers were less likely to follow an elaborate productivity plan and were instead frequently guided by their strategic plans. The activities of these retailing firms can be classified into three major categories: management of technology and physical resources; marketdriven strategies including product development and sourcing; and human resources management. In addition, most firms that follow a plan audit their productivity to assess their level of success.
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