The mechanisms by which voice is provided to employees vary widely. Mandated voice systems, which are common in Western European nations, include works councils, codetermination, and legislated protection against unjust dismissal. Voluntary voice systems, which are common in the U. S., include unionism, accompanied by collective bargaining and grievance procedures, and nonunion grievance-like dispute resolution procedures. These nonunion procedures have become commonplace in large U. S. firms, but sometimes result in reprisals against employees and managers who are directly involved in their use. Thus it is important for businesses operating in the U. S. to make informed choices among the wide range of voluntary employee voice systems that prevail in the labor market.
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