Requiring manufacturers to manage their products when they become waste is an innovative form of regulation, one that has been adopted by countries in Asia, Europe, and North America on a variety of products that range from vehicles to appliances to batteries. However, even in many unregulated industries, some manufacturers are voluntarily assuming more responsibility for their end-of-life products, driven by customer demand and cost efficiencies. This article explores various forms of take-back regulation and highlights some of the key features of the institutions that emerge in response. In addition, it presents seven strategic product recovery alternatives, followed by a discussion of some factors managers should consider in developing a take-back strategy.
- Copyright ©2003 The Regents of the University of California