This article identifies stages in the development of corporate citizenship in large organizations. Drawing on a combination of U. S. and global executive surveys, a longitudinal study of ten companies advancing their citizenship agendas, and several case studies, this article posits that the development of citizenship is paced by a series of challenges that firms encounter. It describes these evolutionary stages and circumstances that trigger movement through them and illustrates characteristic company attitudes and practices at each stage. It concludes by examining the institutional, environmental, and organizational factors that shape and constrain the development of corporate citizenship within firms.
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